## Beta & Relative Risk

We can add the risk-free rate and the equity risk premium to determine how much the market, or an average risk stock, will return. But what if our stock is more or less risky than …

The Equity Risk Premium is the premium investors charge for investing in the average risk equity over and above a risk-free investment. The ERP is a dynamic number that varies over time due to changes in …

## The Risk-Free Rate

The risk-free rate is a foundational element of investing. It’s the theoretical rate of return you can get investing in something that is guaranteed and has no risk. It’s a reference point in investing as …

## A Simple Trading Strategy in Zipline

Let’s develop a simple trading strategy using two simple moving averages now that we’ve installed Zipline. This simple strategy is called a dual moving average strategy. The best way to explain dual moving average (DMA) …

## How to Install Zipline on Ubuntu Linux

Zipline is an algorithmic trading library built in Python. It was used in production by Quantopian which is a hosted platform for building and researching trading strategies. Zipline is an excellent system for trading system research …

## Python Data Visualization for Finance

Now that we understand Python, NumPy, and Pandas, allowing us to arrange the rows and columns of our tables in just the right order, we need to make sense of the data. The best way …

## Python for Finance: An Easy Introduction

If you’re interested in finance and don’t mind programming, learning this trio will open you up to a whole new world, including but not limited to, automated trading, backtest analysis, factor investing, portfolio optimization, and …

## How to Value a Company: A Complete Guide

The value of a business is equal to the amount of cash you can take out of it for the rest of its life, discounted to the present. Learning how to value a company is …

## How to Read Financial Statements Mini-Course

Before you can value a company, you have to understand the numbers. This guide is an attempt to be the resource I wish I had when first starting to read financial statements. This mini-course is …

## Micron: Consolidation and Cash Flows

There’s a lot that goes into valuing a company. I’ve valued fast-growing companies in my previous articles. Astute readers may have noticed I discounted the company’s cash flows, but I didn’t explain the method behind …